The Admiralty Chart collection from the steamship Essex Lance

By The Admiralty, 1833 

The chart collection from the steamship Essex Lance

Asia Japan
  • Author: The Admiralty
  • Publication place: London
  • Publisher: the Admiralty
  • Publication date: c1833-1927
  • Physical description: 73 engraved charts.
  • Dimensions: Various from 115 by 645mm (4.5 by 25.5 inches) to 660 by 1535mm (26 by 60.4 inches)
  • Inventory reference: 15982

Notes

A near-comprehensive collection of Japanese naval charts used aboard the S.S. Essex Lance. This steamship went through several incarnations during its 24-year existence. In 1918, it made its maiden voyage as War Courage and was renamed Glensanda the following year. In 1928, it became Essex Lance and operated as a shipping vessel for the next 14 years, before being attacked and sunk by a German submarine during the Second World War. The present charts were used on board, and form a near-complete collection of British Admiralty charts of Japan. It was, and remains, an Admiralty policy to destroy deaccessioned charts to ensure the accuracy of a ship’s navigation materials and the safety of its crew. This accounts for the high mortality rates of Admiralty charts, making the present collection a remarkable and valuable survival.

Japan’s unique and distinctive culture is a product of the long periods of isolation that characterise the country’s history. It was not until the sixteenth century that Europeans began to arrive on its shores, in the form of merchants and missionaries from Portugal and Spain. Although Japan was immediately acknowledged as an important point of trade, with the VoC setting up a factory on Kyushu in 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled between 1600 and 1868 maintained an isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku (鎖国, closed country’).

Until the Meiji Restoration of 1868, few British sailors had explored its many islands. One exception was the commander of HMS Providence William Broughton, who charted the east coast of Honshu and Hokkaido during a four year surveying expedition launched in 1795. Although Broughton records that the Japanese people were eager to be rid of the British, he did obtain a number of charts from them, which he used to fill in the unexplored western portions of his own charts.

In 1868, the ascension of Emperor Meiji marked a turning point in Japan’s history, as the country began to adopt many western ideas and become exposed to foreign influences. The Meiji Era lasted until 1912, and during this time, Japan experienced a sharp increase in European and American trade; an Imperial decree in 1899 officially opened up the country’s ports to all foreign merchant vessels. As a result of these developments, a growing number of hydrographic expeditions were sent to survey the waters of Japan. With several thousand islands ranging from 100m to 10,000km in circumference, the unfamiliar and complex waterways proved a navigational challenge for foreign ships, and it was essential to have updated and accurate information about the soundings, tidal patterns and potential hazards that they would encounter.

The late nineteenth and early twentieth century therefore saw a great proliferation of Japanese navigation material, with British, American and French hydrographers producing new charts at a remarkable pace. As well as using information collected on official surveying expeditions, chart-makers would base their charts on foreign sources, often Japanese government surveys, or update them using new data brought back from other European or American expeditions. The charts within this collection display the efforts of the British Admiralty’s Hydrographic Office to capture the intricate thoroughfares and vast expanses of Japan’s waters. The majority contain considerable corrections as the charts were periodically updated with the most recent information. Most of the charts bear the stamp of the S.S. Essex Lance. The collection of Japan material produced by the Admiralty has been completed with deaccessioned charts from the Library of the University of Edinburgh.

The charts:

1. JAPAN-HOKUSHŪ ISLAND and La Pérouse Strait with TSUGARU KAIKYO and NEMORO KAIYKYO Chiefly from Japanese Government surveys. London, the Admiralty, 1882. New edition 1910, with corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart, with manuscript colour and inscriptions, pencil annotations to verso, slight water damage to upper corners and few tears to margin. Admiralty Chart No. 452.

A chart focusing on the island of Hokkaido, here Hokushu”, the second largest of the Japanese islands and the northernmost. It is separated from Honshu by the Tsugaru Strait, shown at the lower edge of the chart, and surrounding its northern peak are several Russian islands. The influence of European and American authorities during the late nineteenth century caused a boom in Hokkaido’s agricultural output, and following that, a sharp increase in its population. Dimensions: 645 by 985mm (25.4 by 38.8 inches).

2. JAPAN PLANS of the WEST COAST of NIPON SADO ISLAND FUTAMI WAN From a Japanese Government Survey, 1888. London, the Admiralty, 1906.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3575.

A chart focusing on Sado Island, which lies centrally off of the north coast of Honshu. It shows in detail the west coast of the island, identifying the soundings, routes and anchorages offered to passing vessels. It also presents an inset chart of Aikawa, one of the islands most important cities; historically, it had been significant due to its gold mines. After these were exhausted, the city joined most of the others on Sado in the fishing trade. Dimensions: 615 by 475mm (24.2 by 18.7 inches).

3. JAPAN PLANS of the WEST COAST of NIPON HAGI APPROACHES From a Japanese Government Survey 1889. London, the Admiralty, 1906.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3437.

A chart focusing on Hagi, a city on the north-west coast of Honshu, Japan’s largest island. The city won great fame during the Meiji Restoration of the 1860s, which saw Japan taken under the control of an emperor once again, and from that time onwards a great many politicians hailed from Hagi. The city’s bays and inlets are shown with their fathers, but above the chart, another panel has been left blank. Dimensions: 640 by 485mm (25.2 by 19.1 inches).

4. [JAPAN-OGASAWARAGUNTO] PORT LLOYD On the Western side of PEEL Island, one of the ARZOBISPO or BONIN ISLES, by Captain F,W, Beechey, R.N. F.R.S. In H.M.S. Blossom 1827. London, the Admiralty, 1833.

Engraved chart, with manuscript inscription in pencil. Admiralty Chart No. 1100.

A chart focusing on one of the Bonin Islands, which occupy the waters to the south of Tokyo. In 1827, British naval captain, F. W. Beechey arrived in the archipelago aboard HMS Blossom, and upon his departure left behind a copper plate informing anyone who might come across it that the group of islands were now a British possession. This chart was made shortly after, and shows Port Lloyd, on the island of Chichijima, which was then known as Peel”. Dimensions: 410 by 585mm (16.1 by 23.0 inches).

5. JAPAN-NAIKAI or INLAND SEA (SETO UCHI) Compiled from Japanese Government charts and from the surveys of Commanders J. Ward, C. Bullock, E.W. Brooker, H.C. St. John, Nav. Lieut. F.W. Maxwell. London, the Admiralty, 1872, with corrections to 1949.

Engraved chart, with manuscript colour and stamp, pasted label to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2875.

A chart focusing on Seto Inland Sea, the body of water in central Japan which separates the three large islands of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyshu. As well as offering passage between these three islands, the Inland Sea connects the Pacific Ocean to the Sea of Japan, providing transport links for trade and travel. The chart identifies the soundings, hazards and routes across the waterway, and shows a smaller inset chart of Komatsushima, which offered anchorage on the coast of Shikoku. Dimensions: 660 by 1535mm (26.0 by 60.4 inches).

6. JAPAN-HONSHŪ SOUTH COAST GULF OF TOKYO or YEDO Yokohama Bay From a Japanese government chart of 1916. London, the Admiralty, 1899. New edition in 1920, with corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, with manuscript colour and pencil annotations to recto, minor staining, with later stamp and manuscript inscription to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3109.

A chart focusing on Yokohama, which is now Japan’s second most populous city. Lying on Tokyo Bay on the island of Honshu, Yokohama has historically been a commercial hub, and continues as such to this day. Its rapid development as a port city in the eighteenth century put Yokohama at the forefront of technical advancements, as shown by the railway and electric tramline identified on the chart. Dimensions: 485 by 660mm (19.1 by 26.0 inches).

7. JAPAN NORTHERN PART of KYŪSHŪ SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYO to HIRADO SETO From the Imperial Naval surveys 18th to 38th years of Meiji (1885–1905). London, the Admiralty, 1906.

Engraved chart, manuscript colour to recto, tape to borders, with manuscript inscriptions to verso in ink and pencil. Admiralty Chart No. 250.

A chart showing the stretch of water between the islands on Honshu and Kyushu, separated by the Janmon Straits, or the Striats of Shimonosekia. The straits connect the Sea of Japan with the Inland Sea, making it an important passage for both trade and travel. Three inset maps give further details of the surrounding bays, ports and harbours. Dimensions: 660 by 985mm (26.0 by 38.8 inches).

8. JAPAN NIPON N.W. COAST NOTO PENINSULA From the latest Japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1895.

Engraved chart, offsetting, tears to margins, tape to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2243.

A chart focusing on the Noto Peninsula, which projects into the Sea of Japan from the large island of Honshu. The climate and landscape make the peninsula a fertile agricultural zone, while its access to the sea meant that it became important in trade and travel throughout Japan. Dimensions: 650 by 985mm (25.6 by 38.8 inches).

9. JAPAN INLAND SEA Suwo Nada MARUYAMA ZAKI to OMINASE from the latest Japanese government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1901.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to fronto and verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3153.

A chart focusing on the southern coast of Honshu, which faces the Inland Sea. In the centre of the chart is Tokuyama Bay, surrounded by various islands, which played an important role in the region’s trade. Dimensions: 990 by 655mm (39.0 by 25.8 inches).

10. JAPAN KIUSIU WEST COAST YANAGINO SETO and APPROACHES from the latest Japanese government surveys. London, the Admiralty, 1903. Corrections to 1906.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3631.

A chart focusing on Amakusa, a series of islands off of Kyushu’s west coast and the narrow waterways that separate them, including Yanagino Seto. The chart also identifies telegraph cables stretching between the islands, as well as the possible routes to navigate them. Dimensions: 655 by 470mm (25.8 by 18.5 inches).

11. JAPAN NIPON‑N.W. COAST HAMADA KO From a Japanese government survey, 1891. London, the Admiralty, 1904.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3397.

A chart showing the Hamada coast and the Sea of Japan extending westwards. Offering one of the only large-scale ports in the region, Hamada was an important site for trade and travel within Honshu, Japan’s largest island. Dimensions: 660 by 490mm (26.0 by 19.3 inches).

12. PLANS on the SOUTH COAST of JAPAN KIUSIU EAST COAST, SHIKOKU SOUTH COAST. London, the Admiralty, 1903. Corrections to 1906.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3375.

A chart showing four ports in two of Japan’s principle islands, Kyushu and Shikoku. Three show harbours on the eastern side of Hyushu, and the fourth on the south coast of Shikoku, all of which boasted natural anchorages. Dimensions: 655 by 470mm (25.8 by 18.5 inches).


13. JAPAN NIPON‑N.W. COAST PORT SUSA From a Japanese government survey, 1889. London, the Admiralty, 1904.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3396.

The chart focuses on the town of Susa, which was merged into the larger city of Hagi in 2005. The accessible coastline and fertile land meant that Susa was a centre of fishing and agriculture, and increasingly played host to a number of international vessels, since its bays and inlets offered safe anchorage. Dimensions: 660 by 485mm (26.0 by 19.1 inches).

14. JAPAN KIUSIU EAST COAST ARIAKE WAN From the latest Japanese government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1907.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3628.

A chart showing two of the harbours on the island of Hokkaido, here referred to as Yezo Island” and Hokushu”, despite being renamed several decades before publication, together with a chart showing the bay of the Ariake Sea in the Japanese island of Kyushu, here Kiusiu”. It is the largest bay in Kyushu and houses numerous harbours, such as Kimotsuki and Kumboze, shown on the chart. Dimensions: 645 by 475mm (25.4 by 18.7 inches).

15. JAPAN ANCHORAGES IN YEZO ISLAND (HOKUSHU) From the latest Japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1906.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3602.

A chart showing two of the harbours on the island of Hokkaido, here referred to as Yezo Island” and Hokushu”, despite being renamed several decades before publication. The two charts focus on the anchorage offered at Mombetsu, on the Sea of Okhotsk, and Mori, on the Oshima Peninsula. The third panel has been left blank. Dimensions: 640 by 460mm (25.2 by 18.1 inches).

16. JAPAN NIPON-SOUTH COAST AIKUCHI BANA to YEBOSHI BANA including NAGASHUMA (Nag Ura) and KANZAKI (Naiya Ura) WAN. From Japanese government surveys, 1900–1901. London, the Admiralty, 1904.

Engraved chart, with later stamps to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3455.

A chart showing the south coast of Japan with its many ports and harbours, including an inset map of the Nishiki Wan. Although smaller than the neighbouring habour of Kowa Ko, the bay at Nishiki is noted in several American and European naval manuals as offering anchorage for numerous ships. Dimensions: 990 by 655mm (39.0 by 25.8 inches).


17. JAPAN THE KURIL ISLANDS FROM HONSHU TO KAMCHATKA From the latest Rusian and Japanese charts with additions by various Officers of H.M. Fleet. London, the Admiralty, 1855. New edition 1914, with corrections to 1921.

Engraved chart with manuscript inscriptions in red and orange ink, with folding extension, contemporary stamps to fronto and verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2405.

A chart showing the Kuril Islands, an archipelago stretching northeast from Hokkaido towards eastern Russia. Shortly before the chart was made, Russia had ceded its Kuril territories to Japan in exchange for control over Sakhalin Island. Although based on Japanese sources itself, this chart would later be used to expand and improve Japanese charts. Dimensions: 630 by 980mm (24.8 by 38.6 inches).

18. ANCHORAGES IN JAPAN-INLAND SEA BINGO NADA TOMO TSU; SUWO NADA HIMESHIMA ROADS. London, the Admiralty, 1895. Corrections to 1919.

Engraved chart, with hand-colour in red, with contemporary stamp and manuscript inscriptions to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 770.

Two charts on a single sheet, the upper chart focusing on the port at Tomo and the island of Sensui. Separated from the east coast of Honshu by a tiny stretch of water, the small island of Sensui is famed for its interesting geological formations, with several inlets and bays offering anchorage. The lower chart shows the island of Hime, which lies to the north of Kyushu. Himeshima has historically been populated by fishermen, and its large artificial harbours made it an important point in the Japanese fish trade since the nineteenth century. Dimensions: 655 by 490mm (25.8 by 19.3 inches).

19. JAPAN-INLAND SEA (NAIKAI) SUWO NADA SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYO (Strait) to MARUYAMA ZAKI From the latest Japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1902. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, small panel pasted over, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamps to recto and verso, manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3225.

A chart focusing on a stretch of water in the Kanmon Straits, which separates the two large Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu. The chart shows parts of the southern tip of Honshu, namely the city of Shimonoseki, the mouth of the Koto River and the major harbour in the region then known as Suwo. Dimensions: 655 by 995mm (25.8 by 39.2 inches).

20. JAPAN SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYŌ MOJI and SHIMONOSEKI KŌ From the Japanese government chart of 1872. London, the Admiralty, 1921. Corrections to 1923.

Engraved chart, hand-coloured in red, with contemporary stamp, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3114.

A chart focusing on a stretch of water in the Kanmon Straits, which separates the two large Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu. The chart shows one of the narrowest stretches of the Strait, the Hayatomo passage, in which the flow of water can reach very high speeds and numerous collisions have been recorded between passing vessels. Further south are several small islands, on which any important locations are identified. Dimensions: 990 by 660mm (39.0 by 26.0 inches).

21. JAPAN-NAIKAI or INLAND SEA (SETO UCHI) Compiled from Japanese Government charts and from the surveys of Commanders J. Ward, C. Bullock, E.W. Brooker, H.C. St. John, Nav. Lieut. F.W. Maxwell. London, the Admiralty, 1872. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart on two sheets, two small panels pasted over hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps, manuscript annotation and pasted label to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2875.

A large chart showing a stretch of the Japan’s Inland Sea, here Naikai”. The Inland Sea separates Japan’s three large islands of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and also serves as a connection between the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, making it a hugely important waterway for both trade and travel. This chart identifies the numerous ports, harbours and anchorages to be found on the coasts of the surrounding islands, and also shows many of the routes between them. Dimensions: 615 by 1510mm (24.2 by 59.4 inches).

22. JAPAN SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYO (Strait) From the latest Japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1901. Corrections to 1925.

Engraved chart, panel pasted over, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1578.

A chart focusing on the Shimonoseki Straits, particularly the stretch of water surrounding the southern point of the Island of Honshu, the location of Shimonoseki city. Separated from by a miniscule stretch of water is the island of Hiko, which effectively serves as an extension of the city. To the south of this stretches the northernmost part of the Fukuoka Prefecture, along the top of Kyushu island. The major harbours on either side of the Shimonoseki Strait are shown in detail and labelled with toponyms. Dimensions: 660 by 995mm (26.0 by 39.2 inches).

23. JAPAN-WESTERN ENTRANCE to the INLAND SEA (NAIKAI) APPROACH TO SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYO (STRAIT). Surveyed by Captain H.C. St. John and the officers of H.M.S. Sylvia’ 1872–5. London, the Admiralty, 1878. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, small panel pasted over, contemporary stamp, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamps, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 532.

A chart focusing on the Shimonoseki Straits, particularly the approaches to the city of Shimonoseki from the west. Ships travelling to Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku from the Sea of Japan or East China Sea would have passed through these waters, and the chart identifies numerous potential routes through them. Dimensions: 640 by 980mm (25.2 by 38.6 inches).

24. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST OSUMI KAIKYO (VAN DIEMEN STRAIT) to O SHIMA showing the approaches to BUNGO and KII CHANNELS from the latest Japanese government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1900. Corrections to 1918.

Engraved chart with one inset chart, contemporary stamp and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1648.

A chart focusing on the Osumi Kaikyo Strait, the stretch of water separating Japan’s two large islands of Shikoku and Kyushu. Promontories stretching out from each land mass make the strait extremely slim at its narrowest point, proving hazardous to passing ships, before it expands into the Pacific Ocean. The chart identifies numerous ports and harbours on the coast of each island, and offers a more detailed view of several small islands on an inset view. Dimensions: 660 by 995mm (26.0 by 39.2 inches).

25. PACIFIC OCEAN SAKISIMA ISLANDS MIYAKO JIMA and YAYEYAMA GROUPS Surveyed by Capt Sir Edwd Belcher R.N. 1845. London, the Admiralty, 1852. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart with four insets, small panel pasted over, with contemporary stamp and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2105.

A chart focusing on Sakishima Islands, an archipelago of numerous inhabited and uninhabited islands stretching off the southernmost point of Japan. The chart centres around two of the largest islands, and presents details of other smaller land masses on its inset maps. To the right a panoramic view displays the relief of a cluster of islands and soundings are shown across the chart. Dimensions: 475 by 615mm (18.7 by 24.2 inches).

26. JAPAN LIU KIU ISLANDS OKINAWA GROUP From Japanese Government surveys to 1906. London, the Admiralty, 1908. Corrections to 1926.

Engraved chart with one inset, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamp and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2416.

A chart focusing on the Okinawa Islands, a group of 113 islands located in the East China Sea between the larger islands of Japan and Taiwan. The subtropical climate means that the islands abound in exotic fruits and flowers, meaning that they became an attractive commercial centre for global trade. The inset focuses on the deep natural harbour set in one of the islands, the local settlements identified with toponyms. Dimensions: 650 by 980mm (25.6 by 38.6 inches).

27. ISLANDS BETWEEN FORMOSA AND JAPAN LIU KIU ISLANDS AMAMI GROUP From Japanese government surveys 1873–1911 New edition 27th March 1912. London, the Admiralty, 1908. Corrections to 1920.

Engraved chart with two insets, hand-coloured in orange, contemporary stamp and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 873.

A chart focusing on the Amami islands, a group of eight inhabited islands that were used as an army garrison during the Second World War. The islands are located midway between the larger Japanese islands and Taiwan, meaning that they historically attracted trading vessels passing from South East Asia to Japan. Dimensions: 650 by 480mm (25.6 by 18.9 inches).

28. JAPAN-THE WESTERN COASTS OF KIUSIU and HONSHU including the KOREA STRAIT Compiled chiefly from the latest Japanese government surveys. London, the Admiralty, 1881. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart, hand-colour in orange, small tear to lower edge covered with tape, with contemporary stamps, tape and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 358.

A chart focusing on the west coast of Kyushu and the Korea Strait, which extends between the south coast of Korea and the northwest coast of the Japanese islands. The stretch of water also connects the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean, giving it great importance in international trade and travel. Dimensions: 955 by 650mm (37.6 by 25.6 inches).

29. JAPAN HOKUSHU (YEZO)-SOUTH COAST IBURI WAN or UCHIURA WAN (Volcano Bay) From the Japanese government chart of 1904. London, the Admiralty, 1906. Corrections to 1926.

Engraved chart, hand-coloured in orange, contemporary stamp, with contemporary stamp, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3591.

A chart focusing on Uchiura Bay, an ocean inlet on the coast of Hokaido, the northernmost of Japan’s main islands. It is surrounded by vast swathes of agricultural land and the water itself abounds in aquaculture, particularly squid, making the bay a key trading hub. It is overlooked by Mount Komagatake, an active stratovolcano to the east of the city of Mori. The chart identifies three telegraph cable running across the narrowest stretch of water. Dimensions: 475 by 645mm (18.7 by 25.4 inches).

30. JAPAN HOKUSHU (YEZO)-SOUTH COAST MURORAN KO From Japanese government surveys, 1890–1911. London, the Admiralty, 1905. Corrections to 1926.

Engraved chart, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamp, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3507.

A chart focusing on the port of Muroran, on the south coast of Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan’s main islands. The large port was opened in 1892 to facilitate the construction of a wooden bridge further inland, for the vessels which would bring the necessary materials, and in 1899, an Imperial decree opened the port up to trade with the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The port and city of Muroran expanded accordingly, and during the early twentieth century, became the main centre of sea and land traffic in Hokkaido. Dimensions: 475 by 645mm (18.7 by 25.4 inches).

31. JAPAN HOKUSHU YEZO-SOUTH COAST HAKODATE KO From a Japanese government survey, 1902. London, the Admiralty, 1905. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, contemporary stamp, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamps, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2672.

A chart focusing on the port of Hakodate, on the south coast of Hokkaido, the northernmost of Japan’s main islands. The harbour was first surveyed by an American fleet in 1854, and within five years it had been opened to all foreign trade, making it one of few points of contract with the outside world. This gives the city and port of Hakodate an important place in the history of Japan, as it was through here that many new ideas, products and visitors first experienced the country. Dimensions: 475 by 640mm (18.7 by 25.2 inches).

32. JAPAN ANCHORAGES in HOKUSHU (Yezo) ISLAND OTARU KO From the latest japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1872. New edition 1923.

Engraved chart with two inset charts, hand-coloured in orange, with contemporary stamps, pasted label and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 993.

A chart focusing on the port of Otaru, set in a vast inlet along the northern coast of Hokkaido’s southern peninsula. The city of Otaru faces the Ishikari Bay and provides the water’s central port. Under an Imperial decree issued in 1899, the port was opened to foreign trade and the city subsequently flourished under an influx of international freight. The chart also offers two additional inset views of other significant bays along the Ishikari Bay. The lower panel, however, is left blank, and contains only a table of tidal information. Dimension: 635 by 485mm (25.0 by 19.1 inches).

33. KOREA-EAST COAST-SUON KUTCHI (Cape Duroch) to KOKKO KUTCHII (Linden Point) from the Japanese government charts of 1908–1909. London, the Admiralty, 1913. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart with ten inset charts, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1316.

A chart focusing on the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula, particularly the stretch now located in North Korea, descending from the city of Chongjin in the north to Wonsan in the south. The latter is set within a vast natural inlet, making it an important naval hub. The port of Wonsan, previously known as Port Lazaref, as here, was opened in 1880, and gradually developed into a centre of product distribution for the east, particularly for its transportation links with mainland Japan. The numerous inset charts depict a number of other ports, harbours and bays found on the eastern coast of Korea. Dimension: 985 by 645 mm (38.8 by 25.4 inches).

34. JAPAN-HONSHŪ‑N.W. COAST AMARUBE ZAKI to ANDO ZAKI including WAKASA BAY From Japanese government surveys, 1879–92. London, the Admiralty, 1895. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2174.

A chart focusing on the waters of Wakasa Bay, which spans the coast of the Kyoto and Fukui prefectures in the north of Honshu, Japan’s largest island. The bay flows from the Sea of Japan to the north, and many of the sea’s most important ports are located in its waters, namely the Port of Tsuruga and Maizuru. The chart illustrates the numerous harbours and anchorages offered by the many promotories and small inlets naturally formed in the coastline. To the north, a cluster of tiny islands is shown with the necessary soundings. Dimensions: 660 by 990 mm (26.0 by 39.0 inches).

35. JAPAN-HONSHŪ-WEST COAST ABURATANI BAY to ANDO ZAKI including OKI ISLANDS and WAKASA BAY From Japanese government charts. London, the Admiralty, 1897. Corrections to 1926.

Engraved chart with three inset charts, hand-colour in orange and manuscript annotation in pencil, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1495.

A chart focusing on the stretch of water along the northern coastline of the Fukui, Kyoto, Tottori and Shimane prefectures, which are located in the south of Honshu island. The land faces the Sea of Japan and some of the water’s most important ports are situated along it, providing anchorage for trading vessels from Russia’s Far East and Korea. The Oki Islands just north of the Honshu mainland are also shown, and further details are given of a port and two promontories on inset charts. Dimensions: 650 by 980mm (25.6 by 38.6 inches).

36. JAPAN TSUGARU (Tsugar) KAIKYO (Strait) From Japanese government surveys, 1883–1902. London, the Admiralty, 1904. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart, hand-colour in orange, small tear with tape to verso, contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2441.

A chart showing the Tsugaru Straight that separates the two main islands of Honshu and Hokkaido in northern Japan. The stretch of water also connects the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean, making it a major thoroughfare for travel and trade. At its narrowest point, the straight in 12 miles, and the chart shows telegraph cables stretching across the water between the two islands. The northernmost region of Honshu is characterised by a huge bay, here labelled the Rikuoku Gulf”, but now known as Mutsu Bay. Mutsu bay stretches roughly 40km, horizontally and vertically, and contains a large number of ports and harbours which offers anchorage in its shallow waters. Dimensions: 650 by 985mm (25.6 by 38.8 inches).

37. JAPAN HONSHŪ NORTH PART ISHINOMAKI WAN and SAKATA KO to TSUGARU KAIKYO (Strait) From Japanese Government surveys, 1881–1902. London, the Admiralty, 1904. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart with one inset chart, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3409.

A chart focusing on the northernmost prefectures of Japan’s Honshu island, namely Aomori, Akita, Yamagata and Iwate. Separated from Kyushu by the Tsugaru straight, the region has historically been important for Japanese trade, with a great number of ports and harbours found along these coastlines, particularly in the huge Mitsu Bay, here Rikuoku Kaiwan”. An additional inset chart offers a more detailed depiction of the Obato port in the Yamagata district, perhaps for the reason that the region contains a number of rivers leading further inland. Dimensions: 995 by 655mm (39.2 by 25.8 inches).

38. JAPAN ISLAND EAST COAST of HONSHŪ SENDAI BAY to MIYAKO BAY From Japanese government surveys to 1882. London, the Admiralty, 1885. Corrections to 1917.

Engraved chart with four inset charts, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 806.

A chart focusing on a 300km stretch of coastline along the eastern side of Honshu island. The chart covers the area from Miyako Bay in the north down to the larger Sendai Bay in the south. Located within the Iwate prefecture, this area offered a whole host of ports and harbours for trading vessels, four of which are depicted on the additional inset maps. Dimensions: 980 by 645mm (38.6 by 25.4 inches).

39. JAPAN HONSHU ISLAND EAST COAST TOKYO to SENDAI BAY From Japanese government surveys 1876–1899. London, the Admiralty, 1903. Corrections to 1926.

Engraved chart with one inset chart, hand-colour in orange, one tear affecting edge of image, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotation to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3334.

A chart focusing on a 350km stretch of coastline along the eastern side of Honshu island. The chart covers the between the two important cities of Sendai, in the north, and Tokyo, in the south, with a particular focus on their respective bays. The port of Tokyo was developed during the Meiji Period of the late nineteenth century, and was initially intended as a means of improving the estuary of the Sumida River which runs through the capital city. The modern port was rebuilt after an earthquake in 1923, which its first terminal opened two years later. It did was not fully opened to international trade until 1941, however, but soon became a major hub for worldwide shipping. The inset chart in the lower right corner depicts further details of the port at Onahama, which was merged into the city of Iwaki in 1954. Dimensions: 990 by 655mm (39.0 by 25.8 inches).

40. JAPAN HONSHŪ-SOUTH COAST TOKYO KAIWAN TSURUGI ZAKI to YOKOHAMA From the Japanese Government chart of 1919. London, the Admiralty 27th Dec. 1922. Small corrections to 1927 Feb.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3548.

The chart shows the Tokyo bay with Yokohama to the left and Kimizu to the right. Yokohama lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.Yokohama developed rapidly as Japan’s prominent port city following the end of Japan’s relative isolation in the mid-19th century, and is today one of its major ports. Tsurugi zaki is a cape located at the southeastern tip of the Miura Peninsula, Matsunawa, Minamishitaura-cho, Miura City, Kanagawa Prefecture. It is one of the key points on the route to and from Tokyo Bay. For this reason, the Tsurugisaki Lighthouse was built in 1872 (Meiji 5) and is still in use today. The line connecting this area and Susaki on the southwestern end of the Boso Peninsula on the opposite shore is the Uraga Suido. Manuscript annotation in red. Dimensions: 980 by 650mm (38.6 by 25.6 inches).

41. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST of HONSHŪ GULF OF TOKYO or YEDO Compiled from Japanese Government, and British Admiralty Surveys to 1912. London, the Admiralty 1st Nov, 1881. New edition 26th June 1914. Small corrections to 1924 June.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2657.

The chart shows prominently the gulf of Tokyo with city of Tokyo at the top. To the right of the city is Shimōsa, a former province of Japan in the area modern Chiba Prefecture, and Ibaraki Prefecture. Shimōsa is classified as one of the provinces of the Tōkaidō. It was bordered by Kazusa Province to the south as shown on the chart. Under the Engishiki classification system, Shimōsa was ranked as a great country” and a far country. To the west, Musashi Province was a province of Japan, which today comprises Tokyo Metropolis, most of Saitama Prefecture and part of Kanagawa Prefecture. Musashi was the largest province in the Kantō region. Dimensions: 985 by 650mm (38.8 by 25.6 inches).

42. JAPAN HONSHŪ-SOUTH COAST APPROACHES to SHIMODA HARBOUR From a Japanese Government Survey 1899. London, the Admiralty, 24th Aug 1903. Small corrections to 1926 Nov.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2655.

During the Edo period, Shimoda prospered as a seaport, and was a major port of call for coastal vessels travelling between Osaka and Edo. Until 1721, as a security measure, all vessels were obligated to call at Shimoda before proceeding on to Edo. During the Bakumatsu period, Shimoda port was opened to American trade under the conditions of the Convention of Kanagawa, negotiated by Commodore Matthew Perry and signed on March 31, 1854. Shimoda was also the site of Yoshida Shōin’s unsuccessful attempt to board Perry’s Black Ships in 1854. Japan’s relations with Imperial Russia were also negotiated in Shimoda, and in 1855 the Treaty of Shimoda was signed at Chōraku-ji. In June 1859, with the opening of the port of Yokohama to foreign trade, the port of Shimoda was again closed and the American consulate was relocated to Zenpuku-ji in Edo. The Mikomotoshima Lighthouse was completed in 1870 by British engineer Richard Henry Brunton. Dimensions: 655 by 490mm (25.8 by 19.3 inches).

43. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST of HONSHŪ OMAI SAKI to TSURUGI SAKI including SURUGA WAN and SAGAMI WAN from the latest Japanese Government charts. London, the Admiralty, 18th Feb 1905, New edition 29 Aug 1913. Small corrections to 1927 June.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 953.

The chart shows two bays, Suruga wan and Sagami wan, enclosed by Tōtōmi, Cape Idsu [Izu], the outer extremity of the Bay of Yedo [Tokyo], and Sagami. Suruga wan is a bay on the Pacific coast of Honshū in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. It is situated north of an imaginary line joining Omaezaki Point and Irōzaki Point at the tip of the Izu Peninsula and surrounded by Honshū to the southwest and west and the Izu Peninsula to the east. Suruga Bay is a place of contrasts. Japan’s loftiest peak, Mount Fuji at 3,776 metres, rises from the 2,500 metres depth of the Suruga Trough running up the middle of the bay, which makes it Japan’s deepest. Sagami Bay lies south of Kanagawa Prefecture in Honshu, central Japan, contained within the scope of the Miura Peninsula, in Kanagawa, to the east, the Izu Peninsula, in Shizuoka Prefecture, to the west, and the Shōnan coastline to the north, while the island of Izu Ōshima marks the southern extent of the bay. Two insets showing Suruga wan Mera Koura, and Suruga wan Yeno Ura are included to the left. Dimensions: 650 by 985mm (25.6 by 38.8 inches).

44. JAPAN HONSHŪ-SOUTH COAST TOBA KO From Japanese Government Charts to 1914. London, the Admiralty, 23rd July 1907 New edition 18th Aug 1916. Small corrections to 1924 Dec.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3650.
Toba is located on the northern half of Shima Peninsula in far eastern Mie Prefecture, facing Ise Bay of the Pacific Ocean. In the Edo period (1603–1868), Toba flourished in trade and as a transshipment port between Osaka and Edo. A panorama view from Suga Shima to Toshi Jima is shown at the top left. Dimensions: 475 by 660mm (18.7 by 26.0 inches).

45. JAPAN HONSHŪ-SOUTH COAST YEBOSHI BANA TO ANORI ZAKI including GOKASHO KO (MURA Hr.) and HAMASHIMA KO (GOZA Hr.) From the Japanese Government Charts to 1914. London, the Admiralty, 23rd July 1907 New edition 18th Aug 1916. Small corrections to Dec 1927.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 994.

An inset at the top shows Gokasho Ko Hasama Ura. Dimensions: 655 by 990mm (25.8 by 39.0 inches).

46. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST of HONSHŪ OWASHI WAN (OWASHI BAY) to ATSUMI WAN including ISE NO UMI (OWARI BAY) and MIKAWA WAN from Japanese Government charts to 1914. London, the Admiralty, 1st July 1879, New edition 1st Mar 1918. Small corrections to Dec 1927.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 952.

Owashi bay is enclosed by Ise shima to the west, Owari Province to the north, and Chita penisular to the east. An inset of Mikawa-wan is shown at the top right corner. It is a bay to the south of Aichi Prefecture, Japan, surrounded by Chita Peninsula to the west and Atsumi Peninsula to the east and south. Dimensions: 835 by 645mm (32.9 by 25.4 inches).

47. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST of HONSHŪ KII SUIDO to TOKYO Compiled chiefly from Japanese Government surveys 1876–1912. London, the Admiralty, 30th Sept 1873, New edition 3rd Apr 1914. Small corrections to Dec 1927.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 996.

The chart shows the coastline of Honshū stretching from Kii Suido, the eastern entrance to the inland sea, in the northeast direction to city of Tokyo (Yedo) shown at the top right corner of the chart. The top of the chart includes three insets showing Suruga wan Tago Ko and Arari Ko, Heda Ko, and Shimizu Ko. Dimensions: 650 by 990mm (25.6 by 39.0 inches).

48. JAPAN-SOUTH COAST BUNGO CHANNEL From Japanese Govenment Surveys to 1908. London, the Admiralty, 14th Jan 1886, New edition Oct 1909. Small corrections to 1919.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 651.

The Bungo Channel is a strait separating the Japanese islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. It connects the Pacific Ocean and the Seto Inland Sea on the western end of Shikoku. The narrowest part of this channel is the Hōyo Strait. Included insets focus on Saga No Seki, Amaji Ko, and Port Komame. Dimensions: 645 by 830mm (25.4 by 32.7 inches).

49. JAPAN HONSHŪ-SOUTH COAST OSAKI WAN (OSAKI BAY) to OWASHI Wan (OWASI BAY) From Japanese Government Surveys 1899–1901. London, the Admiralty, 20th Mar 1905. Small corrections to Dec 1927.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 951.

The chart shows the southern part of the Kii peninsula, the largest peninsula on the island of Honshū in Japan. Tanabe bay lies on the west coast, and Owashi bay and Katsuura bay on the east coast. Wakayama Prefecture occupies much of the area, including the entire southern part. To the northwest of Wakayama Prefecture is Osaka Prefecture, whose southern part is on the peninsula. East of Osaka Prefecture is landlocked Nara Prefecture; farther east is Mie Prefecture. The Seto Inland Sea lies to the west of the Kii Peninsula. To the south and east is the Pacific Ocean and to the north is the valley of the Kiso Three Rivers and Ise Bay. Two insets at the top focus on Gobo Anchorage and Kinomoto road. Dimensions: 655 by 990mm (25.8 by 39.0 inches).

50. JAPAN INAND SEA (NAIKAI) THE NARUTO PASSAGE Surveyed by Navg. Lieut.t W.F. Maxwell … H.M.S. Sylvia 1869. London, the Admiralty, 1st Jun 1871. Small corrections 1873.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 119.

The Naruto passage is a strait between Awaji Sima (Awaji Island) and Shikok-no-awa (Shikoku) in Japan. It connects Harima Nada, the eastern part of the Inland Sea and the Kii Channel. Dimensions: 490 by 660mm (19.3 by 26.0 inches).

51. JAPAN SETO UCHI GULF of OSAKA KOBE and HYGO BAYS From the Japanese Government charts to 1919. London, the Admiralty, 23rd Jan 1897. New edition 23rd Aug 1922. Small corrections to 1927 Jun.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2265.

Kobe is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture. It is located on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, on the north shore of Osaka Bay and to the west of Osaka. Hyōgo Port was opened to foreign trade by the Shogunal government at the same time as Osaka on January 1, 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. The region has since been identified with the West and many foreign residences from the period remain in Kobe’s Kitano area. Dimensions: 655 by 485mm (25.8 by 19.1 inches).

52. JAPAN GULF of OSAKA KOBE AND OSAKA From the latest Japanese Government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1897. New edition 1914, with corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart with one inset chart, hand-colour in orange, contemporary stamp, two panels pasted over, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 16.

A chart focusing on the north east part of Osaka bay and the coast of Kobe and Osaka, two of the region’s major cities. The coast of Kobe had historically been used as a port for thousands of years, and continued to be developed across the centuries, until it was officially opened to all foreign trade in 1868. For this reason, Kobe has long been identified with the west and was consequently a hub of technological advancement in Japan. Likewise, Osaka is recorded as a port city as early as the fourth century AD, and by the nineteenth century had expanded to become one of the country’s most important cities. The chart shows the artificial harbours and natural anchorages offered in the area. The areas further inland to the north, however, are left blank. Dimensions: 490 by 645mm (19.3 by 25.4 inches).

53. JAPAN. SETO UCHI (NAIKAI) or INLAND SEA, HABOURS and ANCHORAGES in IYO NADA and HARIMA NADA From French Government Surveys, 1870–2. London, the Admiralty, 1877. Corrections to 1919.

Four engraved chart on one sheet, hand-colour in orange, with manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 694.

A chart showing three important maritime centres on the island of Honshu, namely the ports of Okayama and Wusimado, and the bays of Sakoshi and Morotsu. The island of Gogo, which lies off of the north coast of Shikoku is shown in the lower left corner. Dimensions: 470 by 655mm (18.5 by 25.8 inches).

54. JAPAN. NAIKAI or INLAND SEA IZUMI NADA and HARIMA NADA From Japanese Government Surveys 1885–1904. London, the Admiralty, 1877. New edition in 1915, with corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart with three inset charts, hand-colour in orange, two small panels pasted over, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3566.

A map focusing on the island of Awaji, which faces Japan’s Inland sea to the west and the large bay of Osaka to the east. Awaji is the largest island in the Inland Sea, and from north to south spans almost the entire distance between Honshu and Shikoku, both of which it is now connected to via bridges. The inset chart in the lower left corner depict two of Shikoku’s ports in greater detail, while the chart in the opposite corner provides a more detailed presentation of the two islands situated in the stretch of water between the southeastern point of Awaji and the Miyama area on Honshu. Dimensions: 640 by 980mm (25.2 by 38.6 inches).

55. JAPAN. NAIKAI or INLAND SEA OZUCHI JIMA to FUNOKO SIMA (EASTERN PROTION of BI-SAN-SETO) From the latest Japanese Government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1907. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart with two inset charts, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1969.

A chart focusing on the eastern part of Japan’s Inland Sea, which separates the three large islands on Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku. The northwest coastline of Shikoku is depicted along the bottom of the map, while the upper right corner is dominated by the island of Shodo, on which numerous ports are identified. In the upper left corner the city of Bizen on the large island of Honshu is shown. The two inset maps offer further details about the two important ports in the cities of Takamatsu in Shikoku and Uno port in Honshu’s Tamano region. Dimensions: 645 by 980mm (25.4 by 38.6 inches).

56. JAPAN. NAIKAI or INLAND SEA CHANNELS BETWEEN BINGO NADA and OZUCHI JIMA Mu Shima to Ozuchi Jima from the latest Japanese government chart. London, the Admiralty, 1907. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso, minor tears to upper margin. Admiralty Chart No. 128.

A chart showing part of Japan’s Inland Sea, which stretches between the large islands of Honshu and Shikoku. The chart depicts one of the narrowest parts of the sea: a crossing of around 20km between the city of Bizen on the northern island and Marugame on the Southern. The arterial waterway is dotted with a multitude of smaller islands, all of which are identified with toponyms and their soundings and ports shown. Dimensions: 645 by 980mm (25.4 by 38.6 inches).

57. JAPAN NAIKAI or SETO UCHI GOGO SHIMA to MIYO SHIMA including KURUSHIMA KAIKYO From the Japanese Government chart of 1912. London, the Admiralty, 1905. New edition 1913, with corrections to 1917.

Engraved chart with one inset chart, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 83.

A chart focusing on part of Japan’s Inland Sea stretching over the Ehime prefecture in northwest Shikoku. Its long coastline faces onto a multitude of smaller islands situated between Shikoku and Honshu. The inland sea not only connects Japan’s main islands, but also the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, making it an important thoroughfare for travel and trade. It was therefore essential for sailors to have accurate charts showing the soundings, routes, anchorages and hazards in the area. Dimensions: 990 by 660mm (39.0 by 26.0 inches).

58. JAPAN NAIKAI or SETO UCHI AKI or MISHIMA NADA HIROSHIMA WAN From Japanese Government charts to 1912. London, the Admiralty, 1905. Corrections to 1927.

Engraved chart with two inset charts, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3469.

A chart focusing on Ujina port at Hiroshima, originally constructed in the 1880s. Dotted with a great number of smaller islands, it was essential for trading vessels to have access to clear navigational material, such as this chart, which also includes further depictions of two of the harbour’s narrow approaches in the inset maps. The large port later became the headquarters of Japan’s marine force during the Second World War. Dimensions: 990 by 660mm (39.0 by 26.0 inches).

59. JAPAN-INLAND SEA-ITO NADA-OMINASE to GOGO SHIMA From the Japanese Government chart of 1911. London, the Admiralty, 1904. Corrections to 1924.

Engraved chart, hand-colour in orange, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3154.

A chart focusing on Japan’s Inland Sea, the body of water separating the three large islands of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and playing host to a vast number of other smaller islands. Featuring centrally on the chart is the island of Suo-Oshima, here referred to as Yashiro”, which lies just off the south east coast of Honshu. The chart identifies a network of potential routes for crossing the waters in between the numerous islands with a table in the lower left corner providing information about the tidal movements and timings. Dimensions: 995 by 655mm (39.2 by 25.8 inches).

60. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH COAST FUKUOKA WAN From Japanese Government Surveys, 1894 & 1902. London, the Admiralty, 2nd Dec 1905. Small corrections 1919–1180-1282.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3511.

A chart showing Fukuowa bay in the northwestern part of Fukuoka city, on the Japanese island of Kyūshū, it faces the Tsushima Strait. Dimensions: 470 by 655mm (18.5 by 25.8 inches).

61. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH COAST KARATSU WAN From a Japanese Government Survey, 1902. London, the Admiralty, 7th Oct 1905. Small corrections to 1914. SS ESSEX LANCE OWNER’S CHART 687.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3514.

A chart showing Karatsu bay surrounded by Karatsu City, Saga Prefecture and Itoshima City, Fukuoka Prefecture, south of the Genkai Sea. Dimensions: 480 by 655mm (18.9 by 25.8 inches).

62. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH COAST YOBUKO KO and APPROACHES From a Japanese Government Survey, 1902. London, the Admiralty, 10th Dec 1905. Small corrections to 1914.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 141.

A chart showing Yobuko Port located in Yobuko-cho, Karatsu City, Saga Prefecture. It has long served as a fishing base on the Genkai Nada and a relay point to surrounding islands. Dimensions: 115 by 645mm (4.5 by 25.4 inches).

63. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH COAST IKI ISLAND from the latest Japanese Government Chart 1891. London, the Admiralty, 2nd May 1902. Small corrections to 1919.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 3224.

A chart showing Iki Island (Iki-no-shima), or the Iki Archipelago (Iki-shotō), is an archipelago in the Tsushima Strait. Following the Meiji Restoration, the islands became part of Hirado Prefecture” from 1871, which then became part of Nagasaki Prefecture. Dimensions: 655 by 990mm (25.8 by 39.0 inches).

64. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH COAST HIRADO KAIKYO to SHIMONOSEKI KAIKYO From the latest Japanese Government chart. London, the Admiralty, 6th Sept 1907. Small corrections 1927 Jan.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 127.

Hirado Island (Hiradoshima) is the 4th largest island in the Nagasaki prefecture. Its coasts are washed by East China Sea. The entire island and the part of the nearby Kyushu mainland is administered as part of Hirado city. The chart extends from Hirado to Shimonoseki, which is located at the southwestern tip of Honshu facing the Tsushima Strait at the entrance to the Kanmon Straits across from the city of Kitakyushu and the island of Kyushu. Two insets are included at the bottom right, showing Aino Shima Anchorage, and Kurara Seto and Ashiya Ura. Dimensions: 645 by 980mm (25.4 by 38.6 inches).

65. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH WEST COAST IO JIMA to MADARA JIMA including HIRADO SHIMA From Japanese Government surveys, 1883–1903. London, the Admiralty, 13th Oct 1906. Small corrections 1927 Feb.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2387.

Io Jima is marked in colour at the bottom right corner of the chart, Madara Jima is to the top right corner. The chart shows Uku Shima and Nakadori Shima bordering the left margin, Hirado Shima at the centre, Hizen Province to the right, below which are Hario Shima and Kakiura Jima. Dimensions: 980 by 640mm (38.6 by 25.2 inches).

66. KIUSIU-NORTH WEST COAST IKITSUKI JIMA to TAKA SHIMA including the northern approaches to HIRADO KAIKYO From Japanese Government surveys, 1883–1902. London, the Admiralty, 4th Oct 1904. New edition 21st May 1913. Small corrections 1927 Feb.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 139.

The chart shows Ikitsuki Jima next to leftmost of the chart, Hirado Shima and Kita Matsuura at the bottom, Azuchi-Oshima at the top, and Imari wan to the right. Coloured manuscript mark to the left of Hirado Kaikyo, above Tasuke Ko. Dimensions: 650 by 990mm (25.6 by 39.0 inches).

67. JAPAN-KIUSIU-NORTH WEST COASTSOUTHERN APPROACHES TO HIRADO KAIKYO (Spex Strait) From Japanese Government surveys, 1888–1902. London, the Admiralty, 17th Feb 1906. New edition 21st May 1913. Small corrections to 1919.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 1527.

Hirado Shima is prominently shown at the centre. In 1609–1641, a Dutch trading factory was established in Hirado Island before been transferred to Dejima. From 1613, the ships of William Adams started operating from Hirado Island too, but the British trade mission was closed in 1623. Dimensions: 655 by 980mm (25.8 by 38.6 inches).

68. JAPAN WEST COAST OF KIUSIU NAGASAKI to KARATSU with the GOTO ISLANDS 1876–9. London, the Admiralty, 1st March 1883. Large corrections June 1896, small corrections 1927 Dec.

Engraved chart, tear to border amended with tape, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 359.

Manuscript annotation in red above Goto islands. Four insets at the bottom from left to right are Fukai Tama no Ura, Naru sima Hardy harbr, Naru sima Okushi Harbour, and Nakadori nama Ura. Dimensions: 985 by 650mm (38.8 by 25.6 inches).

69. JAPAN KIUSIU WEST COAST NAGASAKI HARBOUR. London, the Admiralty,5th May 1906. New edition 4th April 1919. Small corrections 1926 Oct.

Engraved chart, minor tears to the right border, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2815.

Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. It became the sole port used for trade with the Portuguese and Dutch during the 16th through 19th centuries. With the Meiji Restoration, Japan opened its doors once again to foreign trade and diplomatic relations. Nagasaki became a treaty port in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. Nagasaki was officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. A note is addressed at the right border next to Oura: Red Lights are occasionally shown from the steamer buoys and the buoy at the entrance to the dry dock.” Another note on Time Ball” is directly below, with manuscript annotation in red. An inset note is included at the bottom right: APPROACH TO MITSUBISHI DOCKYARD From a Japanese government survey, 1917.” Dimensions: 645 by 475mm (25.4 by 18.7 inches).

70. JAPAN KIUSIU ISLAND WEST COAST approach to NAGASAKI HARBOUR From Japanese government charts to 1910. London, the Admiralty, 29th Feb 1905. New edition 17th Oct 1917. Small corrections 1926 Oct.

Engraved chart, visible plate mark, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 2415.

The chart shows the approach from Taka shima, Io Jima, Okino shima, and at the north east end of Koyagi is the Nagaski harbour. Manuscript annotation below the note on Time Ball”. A view at the top of the chart, shows starting from the left: Sumo, Fukuda saki Remarkable White Cliff, Kamino Shima, Hachiro dake, Io Jima, Taka shima, and Nomo Saki. Dimensions: 630 by 760mm (24.8 by 29.9 inches).

71. JAPAN KIUSIU WEST COAST AMAKUSA ISLANDS and YATSUSHIRO SEA from Japanese government surveys 1878–1903. London, the Admiralty, 1st Dec 1892. Large corrections May 1905. Small corrections 1927 Jan.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No. 836.

A chart of the Amakusa Islands in the South West of Japan, with inset maps of Kuro Seto and Ushibuka Harbour. The chart shows extensive soundings in the waters surrounding the land, and lighthouses are indicated in yellow. While relief is shown, there are limited toponyms, although the various bays, harbours and ports are labelled. There is a legend beneath the title, explaining the tehnical features of the chart. Amakusa, which means Heaven’s Grass,” is a series of islands off the west coast of Kyushu, the southernmost of the four main islands of Japan. The largest island of the Amakusa group is Shimoshima. The Yatsushiro Sea is a shallow semi-enclosed inland sea separating the island of Kyūshū from the Amakusa Islands. It lies mostly within Kumamoto Prefecture and at the southern end of the sea it also borders Kagoshima Prefecture. To the north is the Ariake Sea and to the south is the East China Sea. Two insets are included at the bottom right showing Kuro Seto and Ushibuka Harbour. Dimensions: 650 by 980mm (25.6 by 38.6 inches).

72. JAPAN KIUSIU SOUTH COAST KAGOSIMA KAIWAN (Gulf) from Japanese government charts to 1915. London, the Admiralty, 30th Sep 1905. New edition 20th Jul 1915.Small corrections 1927 Jan.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No.372.

Kagoshima Bay (Kagoshima-wan) is a deep inlet, on the south coast of the island of Kyushu. The port city of Kagoshima and its well-protected harbour lie on the bay’s western coast. The Bombardment of Kagoshima by British warships in the bay took place in 1863. Three insets are included at the top left showing Hamanoichi road, Makurazaki wan, and Odomari wan. Dimensions: 995 by 655mm (39.2 by 25.8 inches).

73. JAPAN HONSHŪ, KIUSIU and SHIKOKU and part of the KOREA From British and foreign government surveys to 1894. London, the Admiralty, 10th Aug 1876. New edition 13th Mar 1914. Small corrections 1927 Jun.

Engraved chart, with contemporary stamps and manuscript annotations to verso. Admiralty Chart No.2347.

The chart shows part of Korea at the top left, Gulf of Yalu between China and Korea is shown to the left. Japan is shown from Kiusiu at the bottm, Shikoku, and Honshū to the northeast, and ends at Hokushu at the top right corner. A note beneath the title says As no complete survey has been made of these Seas, they should be navigated with great caution”. Dimensions: 650 by 985mm (25.6 by 38.8 inches). 

Image gallery