Plan of the French Siege of Philippsburg of 1734, during the War of Polish Succession
Carte General du Siege de Philisbourg ou l’on voit les Tranchees, Les Lignes, et le Campement des Troupes France, Les Retran Chements, et le Campement des Troupes d’Empire, qui on este’s faites en 1734 devant cette Place, pendant le Cour du dit Siege.
- Physical description: Manuscript plan with fine original hand-colour, dissected and mounted on linen, key to map to left margin.
- Dimensions: 710 by 940mm (28 by 37 inches).
- Inventory reference: 2723
A key to the left of the plan lists the full composition of the French army; with the infantry coloured red, the cavalry blue, and the dragoons red. The extensive network of trenches are marked with their date of excavation.
The Siege of Philippsburg was conducted by French forces against forces in the fortress of Philippsburg in the Rhine River valley during the War of the Polish Succession. The Duke of Berwick led 100,000 men up the Rhine Valley in opposition to Austrian forces, of which 60,000 were detached to invest the fortress at Philippsburg, beginning on 1 June 1734. A relief column of 35,000 under the aging Prince Eugene of Savoy (accompanied by Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia) was unsuccessful in actually relieving the siege. On 12 June Berwick was killed by a cannonball while inspecting the trenches, and command of the besiegers fell to Marshals d’Asfeld and Noailles. The fortress surrendered one month later, and the garrison withdrew to the fortress of Mainz with the honours of war.
D’Asfeld was promoted to Marshal of France for his role in the campaign; Wuttgenau was promoted to lieutenant general for his spirited defense of the fortress.
Scale: (approx.) 7cm to 1km.
Charles Louis d’Albert de Luynes (1717–1771) was a French nobleman and member of the House of Albert. He was the fifth Duke of Luynes as well as Duke of Chevreuse.
He took part in the war in 1733 in the War of the Polish Succession. He also took part in campaigns in 1735 and 1745, the latter in the War of the Austrian Succession, and was injured in combat at Sahay at the head of the Dragoons. He participated in the attack of Prague in 1742, and also assisted in various sieges and battles of the era.
In 1754, he was created a Colonel General of the Dragoons. From 1757 to 1771, he was the Gouverneur de Paris (Military governor of Paris), an ancient and prestigious rank representing the king in the capital. He also was created a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit at Versailles on 2 February 1759.
He died in Paris in his Hôtel. He was buried at the Chapelle de Saint Jean l’Évangeliste at the Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris.