The greatest globemaker of his day”

By SENEX, John., 1750 

A New & Correct Globe of the Earth by I. Senex F.R.S.

Globes
  • Author: SENEX, John.
  • Publication place: [London]
  • Publisher: I. Senex
  • Publication date: after 1744
  • Physical description: Globe, 12 engraved hand-coloured paper gores, clipped at 70 degrees latitude, with two polar calottes, over a papier mâché and plaster sphere, varnished, housed in original shagreen over paste-board clamshell case, with hooks and eyes, lined with two sets of 12 hand-coloured engraved celestial gores, varnished.
  • Dimensions: Diameter: 70mm (2.75 inches).
  • Inventory reference: 15656

Notes

Senex engraved new gores to differentiate them from the plates he had produced in partnership with Price that were published in c1730.

Biography
John Senex (1678–1740) was apprenticed to the London bookseller Robert Clavell in 1695, branching out on his own in 1702. Between 1703 and 1706 Senex formed an early partnership to produce instruments with Jeremiah Seller and Charles Price, the successors of John Seller. Senex continued in partnership with Price until 1710, and he then joined forces with John Maxwell, by which time he had gained a reputation as a successful publisher of atlases, maps and geographical texts. He produced his first set of 325mm (12 inch) globes in 1706, and then, in 1710, just before his split with Price, a pair of pocket globes. In 1728 Senex was appointed Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1738 he presented a paper to the Society with suggestions for making a celestial globe into a precession globe. His globes were held in such high regard that one appears in a portrait by Richard Wilson of George III and his brother Frederick with their tutor: if we can judge from survival rates and geographical spread, he was the greatest globe-maker of his day” (Worms). Following his death, Senex’s publishing interests were continued by his widow, Mary. In 1755 his stock was acquired at auction by James Ferguson. Only one set of plates escaped, the Senex-Price celestial pocket globe and those for a newly engraved matching terrestrial sphere, which went to the celebrated instrument maker George Adams Snr (1704–1772).

Geography
To distinguish this globe from the one Senex produced with Price, he changed the lettering, emphasized the trade winds and erased the track of Francis Drake’s voyage. The title sits within a rectangular cartouche in the northern Pacific Ocean. The prime meridian is marked as London but ungraduated. The North and South Poles are labelled as well as the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, and their respective landmasses marked Incognita”. The Pacific Ocean or Great South Sea”, the Western or Atlantic Ocean” and the Etheopic Ocean” are shown with arrows for trade winds and monsoons. Australia is drawn according to the Dutch discoveries, and appears as New Holland”, although New Zeland” appears in the place most contemporaries assigned to Van Diemen’s Land”. Portions of the western and southern coastline are missing, and all of the eastern coastline. The northern coastline is connected to New Guinea. Africa includes Negroland”, Zaara Desert”, Coast of the Caffres” and Zanguebar”. Asia lacks a firm northern and north-eastern coastline, and both areas are labelled Incognita”. Japan is incorrectly drawn, with its southern island labelled Bongo”.

The plates were updated again in 1744, revised to show California as a peninsula and George Anson’s circumnavigation of the same year. The Kamchatka Peninsula also appears on this globe, reflecting the findings of Vitus Bering’s second expedition spanning ten years (1733–1743) exploring northern Russia, mapping the Arctic coast of Siberia and reaching Alaska in North America. Bering died of scurvy during the voyage, and an island off the Kamchatka Peninsula was eventually named in his honour.

George Adams went on to buy the Senex plates in c1756, and the present globe has been incorrectly attributed to him in the past. However, it can be distinguished from the Adams globes as it does not include the hypothetical eastern coast of Australia.

Astronomy
The celestial gores, lining the case, bear no revision from the set Senex published with Charles Price in 1710. The signs of the zodiac are shown along the ecliptic. Both ecliptic poles are marked; as are the Arctic and Antarctic circles, the tropics and the celestial equator. The 48 Ptolemaic constellations are named, and two non-Ptolematic; together with the 12 southern constellations by Plancius — although Dorado is named Xiphias” — and three by Hevelius. 

Bibliography

  1. Dekker GLB0034
    • Dekker, Elly. (1999). Globes at Greenwich: A Catalogue of Globes and Armillery Spheres at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich. Oxford: Oxford University Press and the National Maritime Museum.
  2. van der Krogt Sen 1
    • van der Krogt, Pieter (1993). Globi Neerlandici: the production of globes in the Low Countries. Utrecht: HES.