Collection of 28 pamphlets relating to Scotland, in particular the Scottish economy, the Darien Scheme, and the 1707 Union between England and Scotland
- Author: VARIOUS
- Physical description: 28 engraved pamphlets (one in two parts), some slightly cropped and stained, none affecting overall legibility, marbled paper wrappers, all housed in black quarter morocco clamshell box, title lettered in gold to spine.ATWOOD, William. The scotch patriot unmask’d, in animadversions upon a seditious pamphlet, intituled, The reducing Scotland by arms, and annexing it to England as a province, considered. London, Printed, and are to be sold by J. Nutt near Stationer’s Hall, 1705. (ESTC T821; Hanson, 472)[CLERK, Sir John]. A Letter to a Friend, giving an account of how the Treaty of Union has been received here. And wherein are contained, answers to the most material objections against it, with some remarks upon what has been written by Mr H and Mr R. Edinburgh, 1706. (ESTC T54163; Kress 2498; Hanson 649; McLeod & McLeod 225)[CLERK, Sir John]. The Circumstances of Scotland Consider’d, with Respect to the Present Scarcity of Money: Together with some Proposals for Supplying the Defect thereof, and rectifying the Balance of Trade. Edinburgh, Printed by James Watson, 1705. (ESTC T83710; Goldsmiths’ 4183; Hanson 588) CROMARTY, George Mackenzie, Earl of, Viscount of Tarbat. A Vindication of Robert III. King of Scotland, from the imputations of Bastardy by the clear proof of Elizabeth Muir (daughter to Sir Adam Muir of Rowallan) her being the first lawful wife of Robert II then Stewart of Scotland, Earl of Strathan. Printed in the year 1701. (Not in ESTC, apparently a reprint of Wing C7027)[DEFOE, Daniel.] The Scot’s narrative examin’d… London, Printed in the Year 1709. (ESTC T55490; Moore 160)[DEFOE, Daniel?]. The Advantages of Scotland by an Incorporate Union with England, compar’d with these of a Coalition with the Dutch, or League with France. [Edinburgh?], 1706. (ESTC T66288; Goldsmiths’ 4264; Hanson 628; Moore 134)ERSKINE, James Lord Grange. The Fatal Consequences of Ministerial Influences: Or, the Difference between Royal power and Ministerial Power, Truly Stated. A Political essay, Occasioned by the Petition presented last Session of Parliament by six noble peers of Scotland; and addressed to the Noble, the Ancient, and the Rich Families of Great Britain: with an appendix, containing copies of those accounts of illegal practices at the last election of P—-s, which some N—le and others were ready to have given, and are still ready to give, upon Oath if Required. [London, Printed for A. Dodd; and sold by the booksellers of London, 1736.] (ESTC T35420)[ERSKINE, Colonel the Honourable John Edmund?]. Reasons for Dissolving the Treaty of Union between Scotland and England; In a Letter to a Scots Member of Parliament, from one of his Electors. [London, 1713]. (ESTC T168475; Hanson, 1800; McLeod & McLeod 315)[H.C.]. Several Matters, relating the Improvement of the Trade in this Kingdom, by the use and establishment of a Land-Credit, humbly presented to the Confederation of his Grace the Lord High Commissioner, to the right honourable estates of Parliament, and to the whole nation in general. H.C. [Edinburgh?, 1700]. (ESTC R3960; Wing C1889. Only two copies in the UK, one in the National Library of Scotland, the other in the Senate House Library.)[KIRKWOOD, James.] An Overture for Founding & Maintaining of Bibliothecks in every Paroch throughout this Kingdom [Edinburgh:] Printed in the Year, 1699. (ESTC R227356; Wing K648. Only four copies worldwide, three in the UK.)LAW, John. Money and Trade Considered with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money. Edinburgh, Printed by the heirs and successors of Andrew Anderson, Printer to the Queen’s most excellent majesty, 1705. (ESTC T97650, Goldsmiths’ 4224; Hanson 592)LOCKHART, George. The Case of Mr Greenshields, fully stated and discuss’d, in a Letter from a Commoner of North Britain, to an English Peer. 1711. (ESTC T20083; McLeod & McLeod 56)[RIDPATH, George and CRAIG, Sir Thomas]. The reducing of Scotland by arms. And annexing it to England, as a province, considered. With an historical account of the grievances the Scots complain they have suffer’d in their Religion, Liberty, and Trade, since the union of the Crowns. London, Printed and Sold by Benj. Bragg in Ave-Mary-Lane [?1705]. (ESTC T836; Hanson 471; Kress 2474)STAIR, James Dalrymple, Viscount of. An apology for Sir James Dalrymple of Stair, President of the Session, by himself. [Edinburgh, 1690]. (ESTC R212900; Wing S5174. No copy in the British Library, although there are eight copies in the UK.)The Proceedings of the Parliament of Scotland: Begun at Edinburgh, 6 May, 1703. With an account of all the Material Debates which occur’d during that Session. [Edinburgh?, George Ridpath], 1704. (ESTC T78116)A State of Mr Paterson’s Claim upon the Equivalent; with Original Papers and Observations relating thereto. London, 1712. (ESTC N24181; Hanson 1634; Goldsmiths’ 4933. Only two copies in the UK, at the Bodleian Library and at the Senate House Library. There are no copies at the British Library or National Library of Scotland.)An Answer to the Brief Account of the Elections in the North of Britain: with some Account of the New Division there. London, Printed for A. Baldwin near the Oxford-Arms in Warwick-Lane, 1708. (ESTC T69052)A Letter, giving a Description of the Isthmus of Darien: (where the Scots Colonie is settled;) from a Gentleman who lives there at present. With an account of the Fertilness of the Soil, the Quality of the Air, the Manners of the Inhabitants, and the Nature of the Plants, and Animals &c And a Particular Mapp of the Isthmus, and Entrance to the River of Darien. Edinburgh, Printed for John Mackie in the Parliament-Close, and James Wardlaw on the North Side of the Street a little below the Cross, at the sign of the Bible. 1699. (ESTC R216547; Wing L1549. Only three copies in the UK: BL, NLS, and Bodleian Library. 5 copies in the USA)A Collection of Papers relating to the Calling and Holding the Convention of Estates of England…and the meeting of Estates of Scotland at Edinburgh the 14 of March 1689. Edinburgh, 1689. (ESTC R224307; Wing C5169)A Collection of Original Papers about the Scots Plot. Containing, besides what has already been publish’d, the following papers, never before printed: I.The Duke of Athol’s memorial to her Majesty, read in the Scots Council at St James’s, Jan. 18. 1703/4 giving an account of the discovery of Capt. Simon Frazer and his accomplices. II. A Letter in Ciphers to Colin Campbel of Glenderoul, with a Key. III. The Examinations of Mr George Bruce, about the Lord Belhaven. London, 1704. In two parts. (ESTC N3852. Only three copies worldwide, one in the UK at Longleat House)A Description of the Province and Bay of Darian: Giving an full account of all it’s Situation, Inhabitants, Way and Manner of Living and Religion, Solemnities, Ceremonies and Product; being vastly rich with gold and silver, and various other commodities. Edinburgh, Printed by the heirs and successors of Andrew Anderson, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1699. (ESTC R37075; Wing B3091. Only five copies in the UK)The Articles of the Union as they pass’d with amendments in the Parliament of Scotland and ratify’d by the touch of the royal sceptre at Edinburgh, January 16. 1707. London, Printed for Andrew Bell at the Cross Keys and Bible in Cornhil near Stocks-Market, 1707. (ESTC N14918; Goldsmiths’ 4375).Act of Parliament, for erecting a Bank in Scotland. [Edinburgh, July 17, 1695]. (ESTC R232205 (distinguished from other editions in same year by position of page signature); Wing S1128. ESTC records no copies of this edition in the UK)The Late Lord Belhaven’s Memorable Speeches in the Last Parliament of Scotland, holden at Edinburgh in November 1706 on the subject-matter of the then projected Union of both Kingdoms. Wherein (among many other Remarkable Particulars) the slavish Homage and Respect that the people of Scotland should, on the Event of such Union, be in time oblig’d to pay to every petty English Exciseman, is expressly predicted. Edinburgh, Printed for G. Hamilton and J. Balfour, 1741. (ESTC T171125. Only four copies worldwide, and two in the UK at the Glasgow University Library and at the National Library of Scotland)A Letter to a Member of Parliament, Occasioned, by the Growing Poverty of the Nation, from the Want and Decay of Trade, and Wrong Management thereof. Edinburgh, 1700. (ESTC R10965; Wing L1677)A Short and Impartial View of the Manner and Occasion of the Scots Colony’s coming away from Darien in a Letter to a Person of Quality. [Edinburgh], 1699. (ESTC R6209, Wing F1297)[Royal Bank of Scotland]. Copy of a Signature for a New Bank. (ESTC T82932; Goldsmiths’ 6555; Hanson 3753)Vulpone: or, Remarks on some Proceedings in Scotland, relating both to the Union, and Protestant Succession since the Revolution. In a Letter to a Member of Parliament. 1707. (ESTC T52648).
- Inventory reference: 12752
The publication dates range from the late seventeenth to mid eighteenth century. They are all of Scottish interest, and fall into several categories: the Darien Scheme, the 1707 Union between England and Scotland, ecclesiastical and political controversies, and the Scottish economy.
The Darien Scheme
The collection contains the first comprehensive eyewitness account of the Scottish colony at Darien, ‘A Letter, giving a Description of the Isthmus of Darien’, which includes a rare folding map of the colony, with ‘New Edinburgh’ marked by a Scottish flag, of which we could trace only four institutional copies. The letter portrays Darien and the natives very favourably, in what appears to be a last-minute attempt to attract more support. The map is dedicated to John Hay, 1st Marquess of Tweeddale, even though he had been dismissed as Chancellor for supporting the Darien scheme. An opposing view is offered by ‘A Description of the Province and Bay of Darian’, a more sensational account of the Darien natives’ devil worship and bloodthirstiness in battle. A discussion of the reasons for the failure of the scheme is provided by ‘A Short and Impartial View… of the Scots Colony’s coming away from Darien’, which blames a lack of English support and longstanding restrictions on Scottish trade for the failure of the scheme. The fallout of the ill-fated venture is demonstrated by ‘A State of Mr Paterson’s Claim upon the Equivalent’, an account of William Paterson’s ongoing attempt to recover money from the Equivalent Fund of the Darien scheme to cover his losses from his support.
The Scottish economy
The collapse of the Darien Scheme had a significant effect on the Scottish economy, which was already unstable. The protectionist pamphlet ‘A Letter… Occasioned, by the Growing Poverty of the Nation’ calls for a standing council of trade and a return to domestic products and industries. The collection includes John Law’s ‘Money and Trade’, which pushes for a paper currency backed by land. This would prove to be an important factor in the debate over Union. Sir John Clerk’s ‘The Circumstances of Scotland Consider’d’ implies that while Scotland’s wealth failed to grow at the same rate as its neighbours, “airy schemes of governement [independence]” were not worth defending. The history of Scottish banking is represented by a copy of the 1695 Act of Parliament establishing the Bank of Scotland to support Scottish business, and ‘Copy of a Signature for a New Bank’, the 1727 charter founding its competition, the Royal Bank of Scotland, who in that year became the first bank to offer an overdraft.
The 1707 Union
The prospect of a political Union between England and Scotland to consolidate the Union of the Crowns in 1603 initiated stormy debate. George Ridpath’s ‘Reducing of Scotland by Arms’ aimed to whip up Scottish opposition by discussion of the (highly unlikely) possibility of England achieving the Union by force. The reply is also present, written by William Atwood, which was such a chauvinistic defence of English imperial power that it was burnt in Edinburgh by the hangman. Daniel Defoe’s pro-Union pamphlet, ‘The Advantages of Scotland by an Incorporate Union with England’, urges the Scots to recognise the potential benefits of trade through a Union, particularly in the Baltic. ‘A Letter… giving an account of how the Treaty of Union has been received here’ argues along similar lines for the improvement that Union would bring, particularly given Scotland’s pre-Union poverty, and denies that it would represent any loss of sovereignty. The opposition is represented by ‘Lord Belhaven’s Memorable Speeches in the Last Parliament of Scotland’ containing an impassioned plea from Belhaven to repel the threats posed by Union to the independence of the Scottish government, church and military. A negative English view comes from ‘Vulpone’, an attack on Lord Godolphin’s handling of the Union process, and in particular highlighting the apparent danger of incorporating Scottish politicians, who were seen as having sold out their country, into the English system. There is a copy of the articles of the Act of Union itself, published in 1707. ‘An Answer to the Brief Account of the Elections in the North of Britain’ refutes the allegation that the Squadrone Volante, a group of unaffiliated Scottish politicians who lent their support to the Union, were unwilling participants, and focuses ire instead on the Privy Council of Scotland. The lack of public support for the Union and the revelations concerning the financial and political deals made to ensure its passage caused instant regret in some circles. The pamphlet ‘Reasons for Dissolving the Treaty’ shows that only six years later the case was being made for the end of the Union.
Ecclesiastical and political controversies
This section contains a very rare pamphlet with only three institutional copies, on the ‘Scot’s Plot’, a plan for a potential armed invasion of England by the deposed James II facilitated and, bizarrely, then exposed by Simon Frazer, Lord Lovat.
The collection provides an excellent insight into the polemics of pamphlet wars. ‘The Fatal Consequences of Ministerial Influences’ is a scathing account of the corruption of Walpole’s ministry (although its author, James Erskine, is best known for holding his wife Rachel prisoner for 13 years). A political controversy that seems obscure at first is represented by ‘A Vindication of Robert III King of Scotland, from the imputations of Bastardy’, unrecorded in ESTC, an attempt to establish the legitimacy of a fourteenth century king of Scotland. It is, however, a rejection of the Whig interpretation that Parliament could legitimise royal succession in relation to Mary and William’s seizure of the English throne. An extraordinary pamphlet by James Dalrymple defending himself from allegations, amongst other things, that his daughter stabbed her husband on their wedding night and that Dalrymple’s legal judgements were boring, is of particular interest.
The Scottish Church’s reputation for persecuting Dissenters is repudiated by Defoe in ‘The Scot’s narrative examin’d’ and in a discussion of the case of Reverend Greenfield, who was prosecuted for holding services using the English liturgy in Scotland. The ongoing debate between two factions as to the best way to govern the Church of Scotland — Episcopal (through bishops) or Presbyterian (through a committee of elders of the congregation) — is shown in ‘Proceedings of the Parliament of Scotland’ from 1703, where a proposed toleration act was lobbied against by the Church.
The collection is brought to a pleasing end by the inclusion of James Kirkwood’s impassioned work, ‘An Overture for Founding & Maintaining of Bibliothecks’, which called for a library in every parish in Scotland and is considered to be the foundation of Scotland’s public library system.